Orange, namely sweet orange belongs to the family of citrus fruits citrus trees (Citrus aurantium L., dulcis L. or Citrus aurantium Risso) and its fruit. Orange – a hybrid of ancient cultural origin is possible between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata). This – small flowering tree reaching approximately 10 m in height with evergreen leaves, which are arranged alternately with a fine-oval edges and 4-10 cm long. Orange fruit – it gesperidium, type of berry.
     All citrus trees are of the single genus Citrus, and remain largely interbred. That is, there is only one “superraznovidnost” which includes lemons, limes and oranges. However, various members of the citrus family were given different names, oranges often referred to as Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium. The fruits of all members of the Citrus genus is considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy and soft, and come from a single ovary. Seeds orange called bone.
     Persian orange
     The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe after its introduction to Italy in the 11th century, was bitter. Sweet oranges were brought to Europe in the 15th century from India by Portuguese traders, quickly replaced the bitter, and now it is the most common type of orange grown. Sweet Orange can reach different sizes and colors according to local conditions, usually with ten carpels, or shares, inside.
     Navel orange
     A single mutation in 1820 in the garden of sweet oranges, grown in a monastery in Brazil led to the emergence of umbilical orange, also known as Washington or Riverside. The mutation causes the umbilical oranges to develop a second orange at the base of the original fetal stem opposite. The second orange develops as a conjoined twin in a number of smaller stakes invested within a large orange peel. From the outside, the smaller, undeveloped twin leaves a formation at the base of the fruit, looking similar to the human navel.
     Since the mutation left the fruit seedless and therefore sterile, the only means available to grow more of this new species is to plant cuttings to other varieties of citrus trees. Two of the original tree cuttings were grafted to the Riverside, California in 1870, which eventually led to international popularity.
     Today umbilical oranges continue to be produced with the help of grafting and grafting. It does not take into account the methodology of conventional selective breeding, and thus, not only the navel oranges today have exactly the same genetic code as the original tree, but also they may be expected to have been the fruits of this one, are now old trees.
     On rare occasions, further mutations can lead to new species.
     Valencia orange
     Valencia or Murcia orange – is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. This is – the end of the fruit season and, therefore, popular form, whereas umbilical oranges longer season. Therefore, the orange was chosen to be the official mascot of the FIFA World Cup 1982, which was held in Spain. Talisman called “Naranjito” (“little orange”), and he had the color of the shape of the Spanish football team.
     Goldcrest has red streaks in the fruit and juice – usually dark burgundy color. These fruits have found niche applications, such as an interesting change of components in a traditional Seville marmalade, with its striking red stripes and distinct flavor. Red navel orange – kind of the same diploid mutation as the navel orange.

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