London – the greatest city in the world. It is part of 20 of the largest cities in the world in terms of population and is the largest political, economic and cultural center.
Prior to the Roman conquest of Britain in the territory of modern London Celtic settlement existed. During the period of Roman rule came here first military camp Londinium, and then – a river and sea port. By the middle of the IV. the city became an important political center. The heyday of London to the period of the Norman conquest, when expanded its trade relations were craft guilds and merchant guilds. At the end of XI – beginning of XII century. London became the official capital of England. In the XVI century. London began to open large retail company in 1571 started the London Stock Exchange. At this time, the Port of London has acquired global significance. In the XIX century. London’s population reached 1 million. people. During the Second World War, the city was badly damaged by the massive air raids by fascist German aviation.
Unlike many major cities to London did not develop from a single center, and was formed by the merger of separate towns and settlements, so historically it stands a few areas. This City (City) – the center of the city and the center of world trade; Westend (Westend) – aristocratic district; Istend (Eastend) – the center of maritime trade; Soho (Soho) – an entertainment center; Westminster (Westminster) – the administrative center.
City located in banks, stock exchanges, offices of major companies. The boundaries of this area are basically the same outside of the Roman city, as evidenced by the remains of fortifications, churches and foundations term. Every morning in the city rushes about 300,000 employees, with its indigenous population of only 6,000 inhabitants.
Districts West End are filled with mansions, hotels, shopping streets, colleges, museums and entertainment.
East End – a district of the docks and working quarters, overcrowding differing construction and almost complete lack of greenery.
The Soho is a Chinatown, and its restaurant serves a variety of cuisines.
In Nisdene is the largest Hindu temple outside India – Shri Swaminarayan. It covers an area of ??6071 m2. Above thread worked for him in 1526 Indian masters, the church was opened August 20, 1995.
In Westminster to Royal Court and most government buildings.
In London, the mass of historical sites, a lot of great shopping and nightlife.
The list of attractions in London is truly impressive, but they should be allocated among some that have become a symbol of not only the city but the whole country.
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of Her Majesty the Queen. According to many it is the most famous landmark of London. The palace was built in 1803 the Duke of Buckingham, and became a royal residence in 1837. It is the latest by the time of construction of the royal palace in London.
The palace has 661 room, 18 of them are open to visitors during the period from early August to early October. The Queen herself with her husband occupy 12 rooms in the north wing. When the queen in the palace, on the roof of the royal flag flying at this time can not go to the palace. In the rooms of Buckingham Palace are the treasures of the Royal meeting – paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens, Vermeer, Poussin, Claude, sculptures by Canova and Chantry, Sevres porcelain, the best examples of English and French furniture. An interesting spectacle, attracting many tourists, is the daily changing of the guard ceremony in the square in front of the palace. The ceremony starts at 11.30 and runs every day in the summer, and in winter – in a day.
Tower is the main building of the Romanesque style in the area of ??London. Its history goes back about 9 centuries. During this time he had visited the residence of the kings, armories and treasury, as well as a prison and place of execution. The Tower laid down their lives on the scaffold, many famous people. Among them, Sir Thomas More, Sir Walter Raleigh, the wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard.
The first buildings in the fortress was the White Tower, built on the orders of William the Conqueror to ensure the safety of the royal family in the event of civil unrest. On the territory of the Tower as you can see the treasury of the Crown, the medieval Royal Palace, the exhibition “Diamonds and Crown: the production of royal jewels” in the Martin Tower, the Museum of the Royal Fusiliers. From the XIV century. yeoman-guarded fortress guards, often called “Beefeaters”. Today they are not only an integral part of traditional ceremonies and tourist guides Tower. Another attraction is the fortress of black crows. Legend has it that if the ravens leave her English monarchy will fall.
Tower Bridge was built from 1884 to 1894. By the end of construction it was the largest and most complex of the drawbridge that has ever existed. It was built in the Gothic style. At night, the medieval gloom disappears and the Tower Bridge, thanks to the modern illumination, he appears as a kind of fairy-tale structure.
Westminster Abbey emerged on the site of a Benedictine abbey, and from the time of William the Conqueror, is the coronation church of the kings of England. Until the middle of the XVIII century, the abbey was rebuilt several times and finished building, it combines a variety of samples of architectural styles. The Abbey is the tomb of the kings of England, government and church leaders, famous people (of Dickens, Newton, Darwin, and others).
Houses of Parliament (Westminster Palace) is not far from Westminster Abbey. It was built in neo-Gothic style and consists of two parts – the House of Commons and House of Lords. When Chambers held session, the entrance for tourists is limited. It is better to come here around 6 pm when not so crowded. On St. Stephen’s Tower Palace of Westminster clock are bearing the name Big Ben. It shows the exact time since 1859 Generally, Big Ben – the name of the bell is the voice of London. According to the most common version of the bell was named in honor of his client Benjamin Hall, as well as impressive size: its height is 2 meters and a diameter equal to about 3 meters.
Cathedral of Saint Paul, the patron of London, was built in 1675 – 1710 years. It stands on the spot where earlier there were two cathedrals, the earliest of which dates back to 604, the cathedral is the largest in the world after St. Peter’s in Rome, and was once the tallest building in London. One of its curiosities – “Gallery of Whispers” which, put your ear to the wall, you can hear the words spoken in a whisper at the opposite end of the gallery. On the west facade of the tower, which is the main bell of England – “Big Paul”. It weighs 16 tons, and the sound can be heard at a distance of over 30 km.
Trafalgar Square – a tourist center of London. It was planned in the 1829-1841 biennium. At the center of the square is set to 60-meter column in honor of Nelson’s victory over the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. On the square is always a lot of not only people, but also pigeons.
Piccadilly Circus was created in 1819. It is a favorite meeting place for Londoners. There is a cafe “Royal”, where at the beginning of the century writers and artists gathered.
In London there are more than 250 museums, some of them have become world famous.
The British Museum – one of the largest and richest museums in the world. It was founded in 1753 It stores the monuments of primitive art (mainly the British Isles), the culture of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, ancient Greece and Rome, medieval art in Europe, Asia and Africa. Extensive ethnographic collections of the museum include the cultural monuments of the peoples of Africa, America and Oceania. In the library of the British Museum has collected more than 7 million. Books, about 105 thousand. Manuscripts, about 100 thousand. Charters and letters, over 3 thousand. Papyrus.
Tate Gallery – a rich collection of English art XVI – XX c. You can also see the works of Western European art of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The basis of the collection of the gallery is a collection of paintings belonging to industrialist Tate. At its funds in 1897 were built the first rooms of the gallery.
In the National Gallery you can see paintings XIII – XX centuries., Including works by Leonardo da Vinci, Van Dyck, Velazquez and Picasso.
Museum of Decorative Arts Victoria and Albert Museum is open from 1909. In its 150 rooms a rich collection of works of art in all directions.
Madame Tussauds – is the most famous in the world of the Wax Museum, founded in 1835. The museum features wax replicas of historical personalities, characters of the show-business characters chamber of horrors with the most sensational crime scenes.
Having been in London, can not visit the Sherlock Holmes Museum, which naturally is Baker Street, Apartment 221. recreated the famous detective in her descriptions of the works of Conan Doyle.
London underground prison – is known worldwide museum of horrors, was opened in 1975. There have been recreated in detail the torture of the Middle Ages. Mary Stuart Scottish queen, Joan “Ark Dr. Dzhekel” Jack the Ripper “, all of these characters and many other victims of that era speak and move. Many prisoners simply frantically screaming and whining piteously. Torture, screams from somewhere blood flows in streams, skeletons, instruments of torture and the music that brings terror and fear. All this creates a sense of reality, so nervous and impressionable better not to watch.
The capital – is not only historic buildings but also beautiful parks. The most famous park is Hyde Park. Once he was a royal hunting ground, and the perfect place for duels and competitions. The park is located at the Serpentine lake, admire sailors. One of the most elegant parks – Regents Park is located next to Madame Tussauds.
London is good for those who like an evening stroll. Here there are many places where you can leisurely stroll and admire the impressive illuminated buildings of the city.
For exploring London you can choose from a variety of options: a city tour, a tour of the Thames, a visit to the famous double-decker buses, pedestrian thematic tours – Shakespeare’s London, London Sherlock Holmes, the places the Beatles, Charles Dickens’s London, on the trail of Jack the Ripper.
Near Tower Bridge, evening passes pageant “The Beefeater”. Submission takes place with the participation of the audience during the traditional dinner. In London should certainly visit one of the many pubs that have become part of British culture.
London – one of the Krupa theater capitals of the world. Here are opreny Covent Garden, a drama theater Old Vic Theatre Royal Court of contemporary plays, experimental theater Mermaid and many others, whose total number reached 50. In the capital can see the sensational musicals Chicago, Lion King, Les Miserables, Phantom Of The Opera, We Will Rock You and others.
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